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英语商务文化背景知识

When meeting someone in a Western business setting,conversation usually remains focused on business matters and business topics. Family and/or personal matters are not brought up,especially the first time you meet. Conversations stick to the business purpose at hand and remain objective and professional.

  当在西方的商务场合中会见某人时,对话通常围绕着一些商业问题或商业话题,而不会涉及家庭和个人问题,特别是第一次见面时。对话会紧扣眼前的商业目标,从而保持它的客观性和专业性。

  In the West,most companies have well-established and identifiable lines of organization. Larger companies have a clear division of corporate and field roles. Responsibility for all activities is well-established according to function.

  在西方,大多数公司都已形成自己的明确的组织体系。较大的公司对于公司总部和总部以外的业务活动也有清晰的划分。根据不同的职能明确各项职责。

  Basically all employees at medium to large-sized Western companies have an official,documented job description. Titles are usually indicative of rank and status. Titles are normally used to describe various positions,but are not used when addressing the person.

  在西方的大中型公司,基本上所有的雇员都有一个正式的工作描述档案。头衔通常表示级别和身份。头衔通常用于描述各种职位,但不用来称呼人。

  Basically,all Western employees are covered by an employee contract,from a hamburger flipper to the CEO of a major corporation. All employee contracts are enforceable by law,and both employees and employers can be held liable for any unauthorized violation of a contract. The terms and conditions can vary widely from one company to another,from one profession to another,and from one position to another.

  在西方,基本上所有的雇员都受劳动合同的保护,从卖汉堡的到大公司的首席执行官。所有劳动合同都受法律保护,雇员和雇主都要为违反劳动合同的行为负责。合同的条款和规定可以因公司的不同、职业的不同、职位高低的不同而有所差别。

  In the West,clear delineation and classification of job responsibilities are instrumental in creating a strong company culture. Everybody is accountable,from the head of the company down to the lowest-level employee. This approach creates a sense of direction,generates staff cohesion,and enhances morale.

  在西方,明确工作性质和工作职责是营造浓厚的、良好的企业文化的基础。从最高层的领导到最低层的员工,人人树立责任感。这利于全体员工明确方向,增强员工凝聚力,并鼓舞士气。

  Western clients and customers are not expecting an overly friendly conversation when they make a business call. They expect some degree of professionalism. If the person answering the call is too lackadaisical,unenthusiastic or indifferent,they may hang up and take their business someplace else!

  西方的客户或顾客在打商务电话时不希望对方过度友好。他们希望职业化些。如果接电话的人很庸懒,缺乏热情或是漠然,他们会挂掉而去找别的客户。

  In Western business culture,making an appointment is commonplace for most business dealings. Most company personnel are on a tight schedule,and it saves your time and theirs by planning ahead and scheduling appointments.

  在西方的商业文化中,进行预约在商业活动中是常见的。绝大多数商务人员都有一个排得紧紧的时间表。提前计划和预约有助于节省你和他人的时间。

  Appointment

  A pre-determined meeting at a specific time and place.

  Schedule

  A group of appointments slotted over a specific time horizon. Can be administered personally or by a secretary,personal assistant,etc.

  Meeting

  A group of individuals getting together to announce or discuss business matters.

  Planner

  A formatted tool for scheduling appointments,calling meetings,and managing time effectively.

  PIM(Palm Pilot,etc.)

  Personal Information Manager,Personal Digital Assistant. An electronic planner that combines multiple business functions,such as Email,Calendar,Phone book,Address book,Note pad,Time,Date,Calculator,etc.

  Minutes

  Written documentation of a business meeting. Usually the minute-taker only plays a supporting role in the meeting.

  To-do lists

  Lists of actionable items that have to be performed. Sometimes the items are time-sensitive,and sometimes they are just memory-joggers.

  Action plan

  Methodical,comprehensive composite of tasks to be performed.

  Multi-tasking

  The act of performing or of being involved in multiple projects and/or tasks that have to progress simultaneously.

  Prioritizing

  Ranking projects,tasks and assignments in the order of their importance for execution.

  Agenda

  Orderly,systematic list/schedule of business items to be discussed at a meeting.

  预约

  在特定地点和时间预先定好的会面。

  日程表

  在一张时间表上列出的一组约会情况。由本人或秘书、私人助理等来安排。

  会议

  一群人聚在一起,宣布或讨论业务问题。

  电子记事薄/电子秘书

  一个安排预约,召集会议和有效管理时间的格式化工具。

  个人信息管理/商务通

  个人信息管理器,是一个综合了多种商业用途如电子邮件、日历、电话本、地址本、记事本、时间、日期、计算器等的电子日程安排工具。

  会议记录

  商务会议的书面内容记录。会议记录员在会议上通常只是配角。

  执行表

  必须执行的项目表。有时这些项目时间性很强,有时只是一个备忘录。

  行动计划

  对需要执行的任务进行系统的、综合的描述。

  多项任务/身兼多职

  同时参与多个项目或任务。

  区分优先

  根据项目、任务的重要性来安排执行的先后顺序。

  议程

  将会议上所要讨论的商业问题,有顺序地,系统地列出表。

  For many Western employees,praise and criticism are also tied to a regular review process(often an annual review),where they can be rewarded if their work quality has achieved or exceeded company standards. Most Western companies avoid negative c riticism because it can be demoralizing and counter-productive.

  对于很多西方雇员来说,赞赏和批评都在定期的审查程序里(通常是每年一次的审查)。在审查中,如果他们的工作质量达到或超过公司标准的话,他们就能得到奖励。大部分西方国家的公司一般都避免负面消极的批评,否则就会挫伤士气,达到适得其反的效果。

  Most Western companies are fairly strict about employees wearing the proper business attire and presenting themselves in a professional way. This applies to all white-collar employees,and sometimes to blue-collar workers as well. In some cases,employees may be required to wear some kind of company uniform. Any employee who refuses to adhere to company policy can be disciplined.

  许多西方公司对于自己雇员的得体着装及言行举止都有着严格的限定。这些规定不仅适用于白领阶层,而且有时也适用于蓝领阶层。在有些情况下,公司要求雇员们只能穿公司的制服。任何不遵守公司规定的人要受到处罚。

  Gossiping is human nature. Lots of people do it. Mild gossip is usually harmless,but excessive gossip should be avoided,especially in a business environment. Although Western companies tolerate gossip,they do not encourage it,and they are definitely against rumors and rumor-mongering.

  闲谈是人类的天性。很多人都参与闲谈。适当的闲谈通常没有坏处,但过分的闲谈是应该避免的,特别是在工作环境里。虽然西方国家的公司接受闲谈,但他们不鼓励,而且他们坚决反对谣言及散布谣言。

  In most Western businesses,employee expenses are the single largest cost of doing business. Western salaries and benefits usually constitute at least 50% of a company's expenses. For each employee,the company pays base salary,makes contributions for pension plans,medical plans,etc.,and pays for office space,furniture,supplies,etc. In addition,they cover the cost of other benefits(paid vacations,sick days,etc.)with no productivity gained.

  在绝大多数西方公司中,员工费用是企业经营中的最大项支出。西方的工资和福利通常至少要占公司支出的50%.公司为每位员工支付基本工资、养老基金、医疗保险等,还要支付办公场地、家具、办公用品的费用等。另外还要保障其他福利(带薪假期、病假等)

  It's quite common practice for Western businesses to lay off employees during times of economic upheaval,company reorganization / restructuring,and downsizing. There is no great stigma associated with being laid off. When employees are laid off,they are usually given a package to ease the pain of being severed from the company.

  在西方商界,每逢经济动荡、公司重组或缩减规模时,就会裁员。所以下岗并不是件可耻的事情。员工下岗时通常会得到一笔补偿金以安抚他们被迫离开公司的痛苦心情。

  Project management is a key methodology that Western businesses use on a regular basis to solve problems,to launch new products and services,and to maximize the use of personnel. Project management teams are usually comprised of members who have the highly specialized skills appropriate for the project and who can perform at maximum efficiency for the company.

  项目管理是一门科学理论,西方企业运用这一理论来解决问题,指导新产品或服务投放市场,也用来指导人员的最佳化配置。项目管理小组通常由以下人员组成:具有合乎项目需要的专业技术人员和能为公司带来最大效率的员工。

  In the West,job interviews are highly formalized and systematic. Employers pay close attention to a potential employee's qualifications,background,personality and skills to determine her/his fit with not only the job but also with the company culture. It is an expensive process and employers want to make sure that the best employee is hired for a position to keep turnover to a minimum.

  在西方,工作面试是非常正式和系统化的。雇用方会密切注意未来职员的潜在的条件、背景、个性和能力,来决定他是否不仅适合该工作,也适合整个公司的文化基调。这其实是一个花费不小的程序,所以雇用方必须确保每个岗位雇用的是最好、最适合该工作的职员,以把人事变动率降到最低。


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